I resolved this issue myself by attaching my own wireless access point directly to the Ethernet ports available on the Verizon 5G Home Router. It appears the firewalls or some switching/routing mechanisms do not allow you to attach a router to Verizon 5G Home Router, then attached your own router or switch, then plug in a wireless access point to that.
tldr; Verizon's 5G Home Router firewalls only support two hops between it and the end device
won't work: phone > wireless ap > my router > verizon 5G home router does work: phone > wireless ap > verizon 5G home router does work: computer > my router > verizon 5G home router
A consumer wireless access point and a consumer switch does not count as a hop. Hops are L3 devices dealing with IP addresses and networking. Even if you plug in 10 layer 2 switches down stream of 5G Gateway, the gateway won't recognize their existence.
Unless you misconfigured a wireless access point to also enable its NAT and routing features. In that you would have a double NAT and IP conflicts if you don't set its DHCP pool to one different from the 5G Gateway.
They were actual hops.
As I already mentioned only a subset of websites and services were actually affected the rest worked. My current opinion is something with the 5G router firewalls were the culprit. If you enable maximum security on it, the entire thing is worthless (no connection), seems like a rudimentary implementation of some packet checking.
No they had different CIDR blocks
If that's the case, you need to start calling your wireless access point a wireless router.
Also setting the Firewall to high level security would block more traffic than necessary. Medium is good enough for a home network.
I am curious as to why don't you bridge your wireless router to simply act as a layer 2 device rather than a second NAT.