When somebody tries to call our phone, it only rings once/ half a ring. We try calling it ourselves and there was a male voice asking for an access code. This started after the snow storm which occurred two Fridays ago.
Here's a theory... maybe somehow you have call forwarding partially activated. Pick up the phone and dial *73. If you get a stutter and ial tone then it was successful turning it off . If you get a fast busy or error tone then it was not active.
When dialing your own number you might be kicking into your voice mail which would prompt for an access code.
Not that it's a big part of this.. but are you on a plain old copper line or using FIOS to provide your phone line?
If you are FIOS you could try plugging your phone into the test jack on your ONT to see if it makes a difference.
Do you have multiple phones?
Try unplugging all but one. If you have a fax machine make sure to disconnect it.
During a storm a lightning strike could send a surge through phone lines and fry some of the devices in your home.